Friday, 19 January 2018

Belvoir House: Demise

West front

I have already posted an article and several images of Belvoir House Newtownbreda, near Belfast.

Belvoir Park was built in the mid-18th century by the Arthur, 1st Viscount Dungannon, though it had a number of tenants of lessees during its existence.

The former demesne now forms part of Lagan Valley Regional Park.

The Batesons, afterwards Barons Deramore, purchased Belvoir from Lord Dungannon in 1818.

Belvoir House was razed to the ground on behalf of the Northern Ireland forestry service on the 18th February, 1961.

The car park is now on the site of the house.

Here are some images of the house prior to its demolition.

The image above shows the west entrance front, looking towards the River Lagan.

The apex of the pediment can just be seen on the left side, two-thirds of the way up; with a flag-pole above the ballustraded west porch.

West front from the south

The image above shows the south front of the house with its extensive courtyard buildings.

The courtyard faced the stable-yard, which still stands today.


At the apex of the pediment the Bateson baronets' coat-of-arms was prominently displayed, their crest being a bat's wing; and their motto Nocte Volamus.

The pediment was at the garden front of the house, which faced northwards towards the motte, walled garden and glass-houses.


North front

Belvoir House - or Hall - dated from the mid-18th century and would have been, possibly, the oldest building in Belfast at the time of its demolition.

Above, probably the final image of the once-great mansion before its ignominious end, in 1961, with preparation for demolition: The stately garden front, which faces northwards.

East front

Despite its undoubted historical importance, its associations with several notable families, and having once been the focal point of a great demesne, Belvoir House suffered its ultimate fate when it was swept away in 1961 by the forest service.

Last published February, 2010. 

Clandeboye House Guest

Photo credit: Katybird
CELIA LYTTELON, IN A DAILY TELEGRAPH ARTICLE, SPENT SOME TIME WITH LADY DUFFERIN AT HER COUNTRY SEAT, CLANDEBOYE, COUNTY DOWN


CLANDEBOYE, County Down, home to the Marchioness of Dufferin and Ava, is filled with memorabilia collected by the 1st Marquess, a 19th-century diplomat, and provides a dramatic glimpse into his life.

As you pass between the cannons that flank its gates, Clandeboye seems to rise over the mist on the lake like a Chinese watercolour.

This romantic early-Georgian mansion and its 2,000-acre estate in County Down, Northern Ireland, is home to Lindy, the Marchioness of Dufferin and Ava, and is sustained by a series of enterprises.

'We are free of foundations and trusts,’ Lady Dufferin says proudly.

Helping to keep the estate self-sufficient is its golf course, the Ava art gallery, a banqueting hall used for weddings, a classical music festival and Clandeboye’s own brand of yogurt, courtesy of the estate’s award-winning herd of Holstein and Jersey cows.


The settlement dates from the 17th century, but the building we see today was built in the early 1800s by Robert Woodgate (formerly an engineer to Sir John Soane), who was commissioned by the politician Sir James Blackwood, 2nd Baron Dufferin and Clandeboye.

Incorporating elements of an earlier building, Woodgate created two wings at right angles to each other.

About 50 years later, it became home to Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, the 5th Baron and 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava (Lindy is the widow of the last Marquess, Sheridan; the title is now extinct).

The great-grandson of the playwright Richard Sheridan, Frederick travelled widely as Governor-General of Canada and then Viceroy of India, and put his own stamp on Clandeboye.

Like many of his generation he was a passionate collector, and the interior at Clandeboye (sometimes known by its original name, Bally­leidy) is a reflection of the countries he served.

The breadth of this passion is evident the moment one enters Clandeboye through its Doric portico.


In the outer hall the walls are decorated with symmetrical displays of weaponry: daggers, pistols and cutlasses presented to the 1st Marquess.

In the pistachio-green Long Gallery there are more surprises.

The grand staircase is flanked by a pair of narwhal tusks and on either side lie two ornate daybeds.

These belonged to King Tibor of Burma.

Frederick bought them when the contents of the palace at Mandalay were auctioned off after he annexed Upper Burma. 

Upstairs the names of the bedrooms recall the many places that he served as a diplomat: France, St Petersburg, Canada, Rome.

France is the most exquisite, decorated in neoclassical gilt motifs copied from a Pompeiian fresco.

The mythological Europa and the bull are pictured on the bed head.

The gilt empire furniture complements the theme.

The house was designed to take maximum advantage of the light: the south-facing corner of the L-shaped layout is made up of 16 bay windows.

Frederick also had a mania for glass roofing and skylights.

The Simla corridor on the upper floor – named after the hill station in India where the British went on holiday – illuminated by oculi, small hemispherical skylights.

'Clandeboye needs constant attention,’ Lady Dufferin, a successful artist who works using her maiden name, Lindy Guinness, says.

On the day I visited, the Rev Ian Paisley was scheduled to come and see a portrait she had painted of him.

'The studio is somewhere I feel safe,’ she says.

Several chiaroscuro black-and-white gouaches in the studio, destined for a show in Paris, are studies of light in the rooms at Clandeboye – a subject she returns to often.

Outside is a walled garden with its thousands of saplings.

It has been planted over the past 25 years by Conservation Volunteers Northern Ireland, which has brought Protestant and Catholic communities together to work in tandem.

Deeper in the woods is Helen’s Tower, a turreted folly with views over the rolling parkland, immortalised in Tennyson’s poem of the same name.

Commissioned by Frederick and completed in 1861, it was designed by the Scottish architect William Burn, its name in honour of Dufferin’s mother.

Lady Dufferin and her late husband, who died in 1988, have worked tirelessly to restore Clandeboye to its former glory and have created a lasting memorial to Frederick’s unique vision.

It has been a major project, and the work continues.

'This is a real, living estate with no dead hand of institutional discipline,’ she says. 'I look upon Clandeboye as a gift.’
  
First published in November, 2011.

Thursday, 18 January 2018

Temple House

THE PERCEVALS OWNED 7,821 ACRES OF LAND IN COUNTY SLIGO

GEORGE PERCEVAL (1635-75), youngest son of Sir Philip Perceval, Knight, the distinguished statesman (great-grandfather of John, 1st Earl of Egmont), by Catherine Ussher his wife, daughter of Arthur Ussher and granddaughter of Sir William Ussher, Clerk of the Council, was Registrar of the Prerogative Court, Dublin.

He married Mary, daughter and heir of William Crofton, of Temple House, County Sligo, and had issue,
PHILIP, his heir;
William, ancestor of PERCEVAL-MAXWELL of Finnebrogue;
Charles;
Catherine.
George Perceval was drowned near Holyhead on his voyage to England with the Earl of Meath and other persons of distinction.

His eldest son and heir,

PHILIP PERCEVAL (1670-1704), of Temple House, County Sligo, wedded, in 1691, Elizabeth, daughter of John D'Aberon, of Wandsworth, Surrey, and left, with other issue, a son and heir,

JOHN PERCEVAL (1700-54), of Temple House, High Sheriff of County Sligo, 1727 and 1742, wedded, in 1722, Anne, daughter of Joshua Cooper, of Markree, County Sligo, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

PHILIP PERCEVAL (1723-87), of Temple House, High Sheriff of County Sligo, 1775, who espoused Mary, daughter and co-heir of Guy Carleton, of Rossfad, County Fermanagh, and was succeeded by his son,

GUY CARLETON PERCEVAL, who dsp 1792, and was succeeded by his brother,

THE REV PHILIP PERCEVAL, of Temple House, who married, in 1783, Anne, daughter of Alexander Carroll, of Dublin, and had issue,
Philip, died unmarried;
ALEXANDER, his heir;
Guy, died unmarried;
Anne; Mary.
The second son,

ALEXANDER PERCEVAL JP (1787-1858), of Temple House, High Sheriff of County Sligo, 1809, MP for County Sligo, 1831-41, wedded, in 1808, Jane Anne, eldest daughter of Colonel Henry Peisley L'Estrange, of Moystown, King's County, and had surviving issue,
PHILIP;
Henry (Rev);
ALEXANDER, of whom hereafter;
Charles George Guy;
Elizabeth Dora; Frances; Sophia; Georgina Sarah; Maria Frances; Emily Jane.
Colonel Perceval's third son,

ALEXANDER PERCEVAL (1821-66), of Temple House, Barrister, espoused, in 1858, Annie E, youngest daughter of George de Blois, and had issue,
ALEXANDER, his heir;
Robert Jardine;
Philip Dudley;
Jeannie; Sophie.
Mr Perceval was succeeded by his eldest son,

ALEXANDER PERCEVAL JP DL (1859-87), of Temple House, High Sheriff of County Sligo, 1882, who married, in 1881, Charlotte Jane, eldest daughter of Charles William O'Hara, of Annaghmore, County Sligo, and had issue,
ALEXANDER ASCELIN CHARLES PHILIP SPENCER, his heir;
Sibyl Annie (1882-84).
Mr Perceval was succeeded by his son and heir,

ALEXANDER ASCELIN CHARLES PHILIP SPENCER PERCEVAL DL (1885-1967), of Temple House,


TEMPLE HOUSE, Ballymote, County Sligo, takes its name from the Knights Templar, the wealthiest of the three military orders founded during the crusades.

Fierce warriors and able administrators, their power stretched across Europe where they operated as a separate sovereign administration within each independent state.

The knights reached Ireland with the Normans and quickly became established, building a castle at Temple House in County Sligo, their most westerly foundation, shortly after 1200.

In 1312 the Pope suppressed the order, citing their alleged heretical and blasphemous practises in justification.

In France, Templars were burnt at the stake and their land seized by the crown, but other countries adopted a more measured approach, transferring their property to the Knights Hospitallers, known today as the Knights of Malta.

As English influence waned in the remote west of Ireland, Temple House was reoccupied by the O’Haras, the principal sept in that region, who built a new castle in 1360.

In 1565 William Crofton was appointed Auditor and Escheator General, and used his position to amass extensive estates in Counties Leitrim, Roscommon and Sligo.


These included Temple House, or Tagh-temple, which passed with his great-granddaughter Mary on her marriage to George Perceval, the younger son of another distinguished Irish administrator, and grandson of Richard Perceval, ‘confidential agent’ to Queen Elizabeth’s minister, Lord Burleigh, who correctly identified preparations for the Spanish Armada and was rewarded with Irish estates.

By the 1760s George and Mary’s descendants had replaced her parent’s thatched dwelling of ca 1630 and their new house was further extended in 1825.

Unfortunately the Irish famine ruined the family and the estate was sold to a Mr Hall-Dare along with the town of Ballymote.

Happily, a younger son, Alexander Perceval, went to seek his fortune in China and amassed vast riches in the development of Hong Kong as Tai-Pan for the great trading house, Jardine Matheson.


He returned to Ireland, repurchased the estate and tripled the size of the house in 1864, cladding it in cut-stone in a strict classical style, with three formal fronts and a porte-cochere, always a convenient feature in the wet West of Ireland.

The result is broadly symmetrical, with the Georgian house still clearly evident in the centre of the east front.

The interior has a superb suite of large, grand rooms, lit by serried ranks of vast plate-glass windows.

There are lofty ceilings, the vestibule rises to some thirty-two feet, and decoration of a very high order, reminiscent of the grander London clubs, while much of the furniture was specially commissioned for the house.

The house reputedly contains more than ninety rooms.

Alexander’s neighbours suggested he might be over-spending but he assured them of his imminent return to make an even larger fortune in Hong Kong.

Unfortunately, he caught sun-stroke fishing on Temple House Lake and died in 1866, leaving a widow with a large young family and rather less capital than his heirs would have liked to maintain their vast new home.

But they did survive and today the estate comprises 1,200 acres of pasture, woodland, lake and bog, and is home to Alexander’s great-great-great grandson Roderick, along with his wife Helena and their family, the thirteenth and fourteenth generations in almost continuous occupation since the late sixteenth century.

Select bibliography: Irish Historic Houses Association.

Wednesday, 17 January 2018

Tullylagan Manor

THE GREERS OWNED 1,192 ACRES OF LAND IN COUNTY TYRONE


SIR JAMES GRIER (c1604-66), Knight, of Capenoch, Dumfriesshire, and Rock Hall, Alnwick, Northumberland, fifth son of Sir William Grier, succeeded his brother, John, in Capenoch.

This gentleman married Mary, daughter of the Rev John Browne, of Glencairn, first minister after the Reformation, and widow of Thomas Grier, of Bargarg Tower, Dumfriesshire.

His eldest son, 

HENRY GRIER (c1625-c1675), of Rock Hall, and afterwards of Redford, near Grange, County Tyrone, came to Ulster in 1653.

He married, in 1652, Mary Turner, of Northumberland, and had issue,
JAMES;
Robert;
Thomas.
Mr Grier, who joined the Society of Friends (Quakers) ca 1660, was succeeded by his eldest son,

JAMES GREER (1653-1718), of Liscorran, County Armagh, who wedded, in 1678, Eleanor, daughter and co-heir of John Rea, of Liscorran, and had issue,
Henry, ancestor of the GREERS of Grange, Co Tyrone;
JOHN, ancestor of the GREERS of Tullylagan and Seapark, of whom we treat;
Thomas;
James, of Liscorran;
Mary.
The second son,

JOHN GREER (1688-1741), of Grace Hill, County Armagh, and Tullyanaghan, near Lurgan, espoused, in 1717, Mary, daughter of Jeramiah Hanks, of Birr, and widow of John Chambers, of Dublin, and had several children, of whom the second son,

THOMAS GREER (1724-1803), of Rhone Hill, Dungannon, County Tyrone, became, on the extinction of the male line of his elder brother John, the head of the second house of Ulster Greers.

He married, in 1746, Sarah, daughter of Thomas Greer, of Redford, his second cousin, and died at Rhone Hill, leaving issue,
THOMAS, his heir;
Robert (1766-1808), died unmarried in USA;
Eleanor; Mary; Jane; Sarah; Ann.
The elder son,

THOMAS GREER (1761-1870), of Rhone Hill, wedded, in 1787, Elizabeth, only child of William Jackson, and had issue,
Thomas, of Tullylagan;
William Jackson, of Rhone Hill, father of
THOMAS FERGUS;
John Robert;
Alfred, of Dripsey House, Co Cork;
Sarah; Mary Jackson; Elizabeth; Caroline; Louisa Jane; Priscilla Sophia.
The eldest son,

THOMAS GREER JP (1791-1870), of Tullylagan, married, in 1826, Wilhelmina, daughter of Arthur Ussher JP, of Camphire, County Waterford, and had issue,
FREDERICK, his heir;
Usher;
Martha Usher; Elizabeth Jackson; Wilhelmina Sophia Priscilla.
The eldest son,

FREDERICK GREER JP (1829-1908), of Tullylagan, late Royal Navy, wedded, in 1874,  Cecilia, eldest daughter of Sir Nathaniel Alexander Staples Bt, of Lissan, County Tyrone, by Elizabeth Lindsay his wife, only child of James Head and Cecilia his wife, third daughter of the Hon Robert Lindsay, of Balcarres, and had issue,
THOMAS, of Tullylagan;
Nathaniel Alexander Staples;
Elizabeth Lindsay; Mary Ussher.
The eldest son,

THOMAS GREER JP (1875-1949), of Tullylagan, espoused, in 1907, Constance Clara Annie, daughter of Edward Cochrane Palmer, of Beckfield House, Queen's County, and had issue,

FREDERICK WILLIAM USHER GREER, of Tullylagan, born in 1915, who died unmarried.


TULLYLAGAN MANOR, (formerly New Hamburgh), near Cookstown, County Tyrone, was built ca 1830.

It consists of two storeys over a basement, which was subsequently excavated to become a ground floor.


The house has a three-bay front; a two-bay projecting porch; an eaved roof on bracket cornice.

There is a side wing, originally one storey over a basement.

Frederick Greer inherited Tullylagan following the decease of his father, Thomas, in 1870, though he leased the estate to his cousin, Thomas MacGregor Greer ca 1898.

Thomas MacGregor Greer, the only son of Thomas Greer, MP for Carrickfergus, was responsible for much of the development of the estate thereafter.

Mr Greer was a talented man who had many diverse interests.
Thomas MacGregor Greer of Seapark near Belfast came, after his marriage to Dorinda Florence Lowry in 1892, to Tullylagan Manor, near Cookstown, which he leased from Thomas Usher Greer. He had two daughters. 
Sylvia married Major Alexander (Pomeroy); Betty married Colonel Percival, Commander at Singapore during the 2nd World War. 
The Greers returned to Seapark after the 1st World War, where Mrs Greer died in February 1930. 
In 1931, Thomas married Miss Leonie Caroline Handcock (Dublin) returning to Tullylagan. Thomas owned one of the first motor cars in this part of Tyrone. He sponsored the work of Harry Ferguson (of Ford Ferguson fame) who often stayed at Tullylagan. 
The ancient church of Desertcreat in the 1930s was beautified by an Oak Reredos, Pulpit, communion table and rails, all of which had been carved by Thomas, also two oak Jacobean chairs and a silver salver. 
Later he donated a reading desk and a lectern made from Austrian Oak. He was Church Warden for 25 years, Parochial nominator, a member of the Diocesan and General Synod, Hon. Treasurer and Secretary and read the lessons throughout the year. 
He had a keen interest in Tullylagan prize pipe band, presenting them with kilts in MacGregor tartan. 
In 1941 the parish of Desertcreat and people of the district were greatly saddened by the death of its most generous benefactor and paid tribute to the great interest that he had taken in the welfare of Church and district during his lifetime.
Mr Greer considered the Manor House inadequately proportioned for a country residence, so rather than risk spoiling the architecture by adding to the house, he decided to excavate the basement.

This was a substantial task at the time, depending heavily on manual labour, with the soil removed from the basement, the house became three-storey.

In the farmyard he installed carpentry facilities and here many fine examples of chairs, tables and other items were produced.

Thomas MacGregor Greer remained in Tullylagan until his death in 1941.

The house is now privately owned.

Other former residence ~ Curglasson, Stewartstown, County Tyrone.

First published in January, 2012.

Tuesday, 16 January 2018

Gloster House

THE LLOYDS OWNED 4,536 ACRES OF LAND IN THE KING'S COUNTY

EVAN LLOYD JP DL, of Yale, Denbighshire, a captain-general in the service of CHARLES I, in Ireland, son and heir of Sir John Lloyd, Knight, and grandson of Sir Evan Lloyd, 1st Baronet (c1622-63), the twelfth of his race lineally descended from YNYR of YALE, married Mary, daughter and co-heir of Sir Richard Trevor, Knight, and had issue,
John, his heir;
Roger;
TREVOR, of whom we treat;
Catherine; Mary; Magdelen.
His youngest son,

TREVOR LLOYD, a captain in the army of CHARLES I, wedded, in 1639, Margaret Rose, daughter and heiress of Francis Medhop, of Gloster and Tonagh, King's County, by whom he acquired estates in the King's County and County Tipperary, and had a son and successor,

MEDHOP LLOYD, of the King's County, who, by his wife Hannah, daughter of Christopher Lovett, Lord Mayor of Dublin, 1676-7, had fourteen children, all of whom dsp with the exception of

TREVOR LLOYD who, inheriting the family estates, became of Gloster, in the King's County.

This gentleman married Miss Waller, of Castletown, County Limerick (a descendant of Sir Hardress Waller, Governor of Limerick, during the Commonwealth), and had, with other issue,
JOHN, his heir;
Hardress, dsp;
Waller;
Harriet, m F Saunderson, of Castle Saunderson.
Mr Lloyd was succeeded by his eldest son,

JOHN LLOYD, of Gloster, MP for the King's County, 1768-90, wedded, about 1777, Jane, daughter of Thomas Le Hunt, of Artrammon, County Wexford, and had issue, 
HARDRESS, his heir;
Trevor, died at Cambridge, 1796;
Thomas, lieutenant-colonel;
Evan;
John;
Alice; Harriet.
Mr Lloyd was succeeded by his eldest son,

HARDRESS LLOYD JP DL MP (c1782-1860), of Gloster, This gentleman, who was for some years Lieutenant-Colonel, South Down Militia, MP for King's County, 1807-16.

Colonel Lloyd died unmarried, and was succeeded by his natural son,

JOHN LLOYD JP DL, of Gloster, High Sheriff of King's County, 1866, who espoused, in 1872, Susanna Frances Julia, second daughter of John Thomas Rosborough Colclough, of Tintern Abbey, County Wexford, and had issue,
JOHN HARDRESS, his heir;
Evan Colclough;
Llewellyn Wilfred Medhop;
Mary Louisa Arthurina Gwendoline Colclough; Susanna Frederica Lillian Mary; Myrtle Susan.
Mr Lloyd died in 1883, and was succeeded by his eldest son,

BRIGADIER JOHN HARDRESS LLOYD DSO JP DL (1874-1952), of Gloster, High Sheriff of King's County, 1906, who wedded, in 1903, Adeline, daughter of Sir Samuel Wilson, MP for Portsmouth, 1886-92, though the marriage was without issue.


GLOSTER HOUSE, Shinrone, Birr, is County Offaly’s most important early 18th century house.

The Lloyd family came to Ireland from Denbighshire to serve in the army of CHARLES I, and acquired the estate by marriage in 1639.

Presumably they lived in the 17th century house until the building was enlarged in the 1720s.

Maurice Craig has remarked that “Gloster has features which can hardly derive from anyone other than Sir Edward Lovett-Pearce”.

Craig feels that Lovett-Pearce may have provided the design for his cousin Trevor Lloyd but left the execution to others, since “for all its charm, it is provincial in almost every respect”.

Gloster is unusually long and low, with thirteen bays and two stories.


The bays to either side of the breakfront have a series of elaborate pilasters, while the pairs of upper storey end-bays have blind niches in place of windows.

The elaborate, double-height entrance-hall has a series of bust-filled niches while there is very grand upper hall on the piano nobile.

This overlooks the entrance-hall though a series of round-headed openings.

Samuel Chearnley may possibly have had a hand in designing the gardens, which contain a canal, a lime avenue and a pedimented arch, flanked by obelisks in the manner of Vanburgh while a series of

later terraces in front of the house descend to a small lake.

Brigadier Hardress Lloyd and his wife had no children, so Gloster House was inherited by their nephew, Major Evan Trevor Lloyd.

Major Lloyd held the estate for several years when, in 1958, he sold it to an order of nuns.

In 1990, the religious order ended their activities at Gloster; and in 1992 the estate was sold to the Macra ne Feirme organization, which intended to operate the estate as a rural training centre.

The project proved to be unsuccessful and, after a few years, they sold it to a pharmaceutical organisation that held it until 2001, when it was purchased by the present owners, Tom and Mary Alexander, who have carried out a thorough and sympathetic restoration.

Famous visitors to Gloster include John Wesley, who preached here in 1749; while the famous Australian “Diva”, Dame Nellie Melba GBE, sang from the gallery in the upper hall in the early 20th century.

Select bibliography: Irish Historic Houses Association.

Thomas Tunnock Ltd


THE FOLLOWING WARRANT IS HEREBY ISSUED:

By Appointment to the Rt Hon the Earl of Belmont, 
Purveyors of Tea Cakes,
Thomas Tunnock Limited, Uddingston, Glasgow.

The Tunnock's Teacake, popular in the British Isles, comprises a small round shortbread biscuit covered with a dome of Italian meringue and a whipped egg white concoction similar to marshmallow.


This is then encased in a thin layer of milk or dark chocolate and wrapped in a red and silver foil paper for the more popular milk chocolate variety; or blue, black, and gold wrapping for the dark.

First issued March, 2010.

N.B. Editors: the alter ego, viz. Belmont, simply cannot have enough of these ethereal biccies (!)

Monday, 15 January 2018

Mount Stewart House


THE MARQUESSES OF LONDONDERRY WERE MAJOR LANDOWNERS IN COUNTY DOWN, WITH 23,554 ACRES

This branch of the noble house of STEWART claims a common ancestor with the Earls of Galloway; namely, Sir William Stewart, of Dalswinton and Garlies, from whose second son, Thomas Stewart, of Minto, descended, 

JOHN STEWART, of Ballylawn Castle (the first of the family that settled in Ireland), who received a grant of the manor of Stewart's Court (where he erected Ballylawn Castle) from JAMES I in County Donegal, and erected the said castle.

Mr Stewart was succeeded at his decease by his eldest son,

CHARLES STEWART, whose grandson,

WILLIAM STEWART, of Ballylawn Castle, had issue,
ALEXANDER, his heir;
Martha, m John Kennedy, of Cultra.
The only son,

ALEXANDER STEWART (1697-1781), of Mount Stewart, County Down, MP for the city of Londonderry, married, in 1737, Mary, only surviving daughter of Alderman John Cowan, of Londonderry (by his aunt, Anne Stewart), and sister and heir of Sir Robert Cowan, Knight, Governor of Bombay, and had, with other issue,
ROBERT, his heir;
Alexander;
Alexander Stewart was succeeded by his eldest son,

ROBERT STEWART (1739-1821), of Ballylawn Castle and Mount Stewart, County Down, who, having represented the latter county in parliament, and having been sworn a member of the Privy Council, was elevated to the peerage, in 1789, by the title of Baron Stewart.

His lordship was advanced to a viscountcy, as Viscount Castlereagh, in 1795; and to an earldom, as Earl of Londonderry, in 1796.

His lordship was further advanced to the dignity of a marquessate, in 1816, as MARQUESS OF LONDONDERRY.

He married firstly, in 1766, the Lady Sarah Frances Seymour, second daughter of Francis, Marquess of Hertford, and had issue,
ROBERT, Viscount Castlereagh, 2nd Marquess.
His lordship wedded secondly, in 1775, the Lady Frances Pratt, eldest daughter of Charles, 1st Earl Camden, and sister of the Marquess Camden, by whom he had issue,
CHARLES WILLIAM, 3rd Marquess;
Frances Anne; Caroline; Georgiana; Selina; Matilda; Emily Jane; Octavia.
His lordship was succeeded by his eldest son,

ROBERT, 2nd Marquess (1769-1822), KG, GCH, PC; who had already distinguished himself in the political world as Viscount Castlereagh, and filled, under that designation, several high ministerial offices.

His lordship espoused, in 1794, the Lady Amelia (Emily) Hobart, youngest daughter and co-heir of John, 2nd Earl of Buckinghamshire, by whom he had no issue.

The 2nd Marquess died at his seat, North Cray, Kent, in 1822 (at which period he was Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs), and was succeeded by his half-brother, Lord Stewart, as

CHARLES WILLIAM, 3rd Marquess (1778-1854); who was further created Viscount Seaham and Earl Vane in 1823.

He wedded, in 1804, the Lady Catherine Bligh, youngest daughter of John, 3rd Earl of Darnley, by whom he had a son,
FREDERICK WILLIAM ROBERT, 4th Marquess.
His lordship espoused secondly, in 1819, Frances Anne, only daughter and heir of Sir Harry Vane-Tempest, by Anne Catherine, Countess of Antrim in her own right (upon which occasion his lordship assumed the additional surname and arms of VANE), by whom he had issue,
GEORGE HENRY ROBERT CHARLES WILLIAM, 5th Marquess;
Adolphus Frederick Charles William;
Ernest McDonnell;
A son;
Frances Anne Emily; Alexandrina Octavia Maria; Adelaide Emelina Caroline.
  • Frederick Aubrey Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 10th Marquess (b 1972).
The heir presumptive is his brother Lord Reginald Alexander Vane-Tempest-Stewart (b 1977).The heir presumptive's heir apparent is his son Robin Gabriel Vane-Tempest-Stewart (b 2004).
MOUNT STEWART HOUSE, near Newtownards, County Down, is a long, two-storey, Classical house of the 1820s.

The main interior feature is a vast central hall consisting of an octagon, top-lit through a balustraded gallery from a dome filled with stained glass.

I have written fondly of Mount Stewart's former swimming-pool here.

The estate has one of the most outstanding gardens in the British Isles and has been proposed as a World Heritage Site.

It was formulated within an already established walled demesne on the shores of Strangford Lough on the Ards Peninsula, County Down, with mature shelter tree cover some two hundred years old.

The site benefits from an excellent climate in which a vast range of plants can thrive.

The climatic conditions, the plant collection and the design all combine to make this an outstanding garden in any context; and it is rightfully renowned throughout Europe.
The demesne owes its origin to Alexander Stewart MP (1699-1781), a minor County Donegal landowner and successful linen merchant who, having married his cousin, Mary Cowan, a rich heiress, in 1737, purchased the Colville manors of Comber and Newtownards in 1744 and resolved to build a seat on the present site, then known as Templecrone.
This building, which he initially called Mount Pleasant, was a large, long, low two-storey building, originally painted blue, occupying much the same ground as the present William Morrison house.

Young also mentioned ‘some new plantations, which surround an improved lawn, where Mr. Stewart intends building’ - a reference to landscaping round a planned new house that Alexander Stewart intended to built on the hill lying just south-west of the present walled garden.

His son Robert, later 1st Marquess of Londonderry, advanced his father’s plans once he inherited in 1781.

In June, 1783, the architect James Wyatt was paid for providing plans for ‘New Offices’ and ‘Mansion house intended at Mount Stewart’.

Just south of this house, facing the Portaferry Road running close to the house, he built a small settlement known as Newtown Stewart, which Young described in 1776 as ‘a row of neat stone and slate cabins’ and shown on David Geddas’s Demesne map of 1779 [presently in the house].

The latter was never built, but evidently intended for the same location on Bean Hill near the walled garden.

The walled garden itself was probably completed by 1780-1 for, in 1781, there are payments for the ‘freight for tiles for hothouse’; while, in 1780, the head gardener replanted a vine ‘in the west pine stove’ – apparently the same ancient vine that occupies the west end of the glasshouse today.

The adjacent sprawling farm yard complex, which includes a hexagonal dovecote, was also built around this time, possibly in 1784-5, with the yard being repaired in 1816-17 following a fire.

Further additions were erected here in the 1870s.

The landscape gardener, William King, who may already have been involved in landscaping here in the 1770s, was paid for work in July 1781, May and November 1782.

The park layout as shown on the 1834 Ordnance Survey map is probably largely King’s work, and was laid down sympathetically to the drumlin country, probably assuming the house to be located near the walled garden.

However, most of the demesne plantations were put down over the much longer period, with payments being made between 1785 and 1801.


An important focal point in the park is the Temple of the Winds, reckoned by some to be the finest garden building in Northern Ireland.

Located on a hill on the south side of the park, overlooking the lough, this was begun in 1782 to the designs of James ‘Athenian’ Stuart, who was paid for his work in 1783.

His plans were based on the 1st century BC building of the same name in Athens and sourced from illustrations in the second volume of Stuart and Revett’s Antiquities of Athens (1763).

It is of two storeys over a basement and hipped; an octagonal banqueting house, constructed in Scrabo stone and completed in late 1785, as is evident from payments made to the stonemason David McBlain, the joiner John Ferguson and others (refurbished in 1965 and again in 1994).

It is evident that the temple was formerly a very striking feature in the park-scape, for the plantations around it do not appear to have been established until fifteen or twenty years after its completion.

In the 1790s there was little building activity at Mount Stewart, following the expense of electing Robert’s son, Lord Castlereagh, into Parliament in 1790.

However, in 1802 he decided to modernise part of his existing house and so engaged George Dance, the Younger (1741-1825), who produced plans in 1804 for a Classical Regency replacement of the west wing, which was completed around 1806.

This incorporated grand new reception rooms, complete with a Grecian porte-cochère and gravel sweep on the north front; the wing survives in modified form as the end elevation of the present house.

In the period 1804-18 new approaches were laid down to the house and three gate lodges added.

The new western approach was entered via the Georgian Gothick ‘ink pot’ twin lodges (1808-09), placed on the recently re-aligned Portaferry Road (the road originally ran much closer to the house).

These single-storey twin lodges, notably for their distinctive canted elevations, are probably also the work of George Dance, as is also the nearby contemporary ‘toy fort’ Gothic Clay or Greyabbey gate lodge, notable for its horn-like pinnacles.

At the rear entrance, Hamilton’s Lodge was built in 1817 as part of laying down the new Donaghadee Approach; it was later remodelled.

Other buildings at this time included a single-storey, picturesque "toy fort" hunting lodge of ca 1810, probably by Dance, lying in a wooded area on the north side of the park, and a demesne school house of 1813, formerly a charity school belonging to the Erasmus Smith Foundation; now a house and artist’s studio.

Charles William Stewart (1778-1854) succeeded as 3rd Marquess in 1822, after the suicide of his elder half-brother Lord Castlereagh (who had become 2nd Marquess the previous year); and during the 1820s the family’s resources were focused on building work at Wynyard & Seaham in County Durham and Holdernesse [Londonderry] House in London.

Eventually, in 1835, the 3rd Marquess and his wife, the heiress Frances Anne Vane-Tempest, invited William Vitruvius Morrison to prepare plans to knock down the old house to the east of the Dance Wing at Mount Stewart, with a scheme to rebuild and enlarge the mansion.

Morrison’s plans were not actually implemented until after the architect’s death in 1838, when work was undertaken between 1845-49, supervised by the Newtownards builder, Charles Campbell.

The new block, as wide as the old house was long, created a new south entrance of eleven bays with an Ionic porte-cochère as its central feature; the old porte-cochère on the north was removed and replaced with a tripartite window.

As work was being completed on the house, a U-shaped rubble-built stable yard was added in 1846 to a design of the architect Charles Campbell, while at the same time improvements were being made in the park, most notably work on digging a new lake between 1846-51 in what was formerly a gravel pit to the north of the house.

Water from this lake was subsequently used to supply the house via McComb’s Hill, through the use of a horse-drawn pump and later a hydraulic ram.

A boat house was built on the south shore, whose waters were linked to the house by a ‘lawn’ meadow dotted with trees.

A gas-works was built ca 1859 in the south side of the demesne.

During the second half of the 19th century the house was only occasionally used by its owners, the 4th Marquess (1805-72); his half- brother, the 5th Marquess (1821-84); and Charles Stewart, 6th Marquess (1852-1915), the latter spending much of his time in London.

The parkland consequently remained relatively unchanged, with some minor alterations, such as the extension of the enclosing screen to encompass the whole perimeter in 1901.

The townland boundary was changed in 1906 to encompass the whole demesne.

In 1921 Charles, 7th Marquess, and his wife Edith moved to Mount Stewart, having inherited the property in 1915.

She had once remarked, on a visit prior to 1921, that the property was ‘the dampest, darkest and saddest place I had ever stayed in’.

As soon as she arrived there to live, Lady Londonderry undertook to transform the grounds around the house.

She took advice from expert plants-men and was fortunate to have been able to employ workmen from a post-war labour scheme. She used her resources skilfully.

The result is a lay-out that includes both formal and informal areas, each with their own style and atmosphere.

Compartments are arranged in close proximity to the house around three sides and are separated into differing formal gardens, such as the Italian Garden, the Spanish Garden, the Mairi Garden and the Dodo Terrace.

The latter is decorated with specially made statuary of creatures representing early 20th century British political figures, most of whom formed part of her ‘Ark Club’; these figures were made of moulded chicken wire and cement by Thomas Beattie of Newtownards.

Gertrude Jekyll planned some of the planting for the Sunken Garden.

The north-east front of the house has a rectangular balustraded carriage sweep but, further afield, paths wind past informally planted shrubs, specimen trees and woodland, carpeted with bulbs and drifts of naturalised plants.

These areas contain a great variety of outstanding plant material, particularly of Australasian origin.

Paths and a great deal of planting were focused round the large artificial lake, with the family burial ground, Tir-ña-nOg, built in the 1930s at the north end on high ground.

Like most other demesnes, Mount Stewart was requisitioned by the troops during the war and in the years that followed (until ca 1965) many of the original beech and oak demesne woods were sadly felled and replaced with unsightly conifers.

In 1949 the 7th Marquess died and left the property to his wife for her life-time and then to his youngest daughter, Lady Mairi Bury.

In 1955 the gardens were transferred to the care of the National Trust and two years later, in 1959, Edith, Lady Londonderry died.

The Temple of the Winds was acquired in 1963 and, in 1977, the house plus an endowment were accepted by the National Trust as a generous gift from Lady Mairi.

Tir-ña-nOg was acquired by the Trust from Lady Mairi in 1986.

The gardens are beautifully maintained by the National Trust.

During his many years as head gardener, Nigel Marshal, (retired 2002) continued successfully to build up the garden’s important plant collections. The walled garden is not currently on public display.

 20,222 acres in County Durham; Wynyard Hall, and elsewhere.

They also maintained a grand London residence in Park Lane, Londonderry House, which was demolished to make way for the Hilton Hotel. 

Londonderry arms courtesy of European Heraldry.   First published in June, 2010.